Sunday, March 22, 2020

The Most Appealing Things In Life Essays - Citrus, Kumquat

The Most Appealing Things In Life : It seems to me that the most appealing things in life are those which lie just beyond our reach. Whether they are there because they are appealing or appealing simply because they are there, I doubt I will ever know, but they are there and I for one feel the need to reach out for them periodically in the hopes of one day satisfying my hunger for the untouchable. Like Tantalus, standing neck high in a stream directly below a tree full of all varieties of fruit: apples, oranges, grapes, bananas, kiwis, and pineapples, watermelons, and kumquats. But every time we bend down to drink from the cool waters of the stream it lowers, and every time we reach up to pick a fruit, we fall short. But we try and try nonetheless. I remember when I was 8, living on Cannon Air Force Base got to be a little boring. Within the safe walls of the Base housing a child's life got to be routine, same people, same games, day after day. Finding myself bored and noncomplacent with the everyday routine, while all my friends were content to sit in the stream and never thought of jumping up for a fruit, I decided to look up into that tree. I needed something great, something magnificent, I needed to do something that would have those conformist peons groveling at my feet. I saw the fruit I was going to pick. It appeared to me in the form of fame. I knew what I wanted, but a problem presented itself. How was I to pick this magnificent fruit? A magic trick came to mind, one I had recently seen performed by a neighbor in her front yard. She had climbed into her tree, tied a noose around her neck and jumped. After dangling from her neck for a few seconds she magically came back to life. That's what I would do. It would be great. I made my noose, I climbed my tree and put the noose around my neck. With a crowd gathered around in my front yard I was ready to amaze my audience with my magical abilities. I jumped for that fruit, and jumped from the tree. I heard the air whiz by and the rope crackle as it tightened around the branch I had fastened it to. Half a second later I found myself two and a half feet short of fame and the ground. Had it not been for my inability to properly tie a noose, I would have remained dangling from my neck rather that come crashing back down to the cool waters of the stream with a rope burn around my neck and no fruit in my hand. When I had seen the trick done by my neighbor, I was so mystified by this magical feat that I didn't bother to look at her ?magical? feet, which were tip-toeing across the ground. A stupid oversight, which almost earned me death, but what's death to a boy? Nothing. when we are young we can do or try to do anything, and I would keep jumping for those fruits of different kinds and different shapes every time, and I would fall short again and again, and they would bring me scars and scabs and rope burns and near death, but I would not stop jumping and reaching. The most recent attempt at one of those enticing fruits began my sophomore year. I looked up into that big tree we know as Montwood High School and saw one kumquat bigger and brighter than the rest. She was 5'5, bright eyes, blonde hair, great skin, you know, perfect. I pointed up into the branches, and looking over to my friends said ?I'm going to get her.? They laughed and disregarded the thought. As far as they were concerned it was impossible, and I was beginning to doubt the possibility myself. One year passed and I found myself once again, in the graces of the Gifted and Talented class. I soon noticed my fears and doubts were being put to rest. When I walked passed her in the halls I could swear I saw her looking at me, I knew

Thursday, March 5, 2020

What Drives Organizational Change Essay Example

What Drives Organizational Change Essay Example What Drives Organizational Change Essay What Drives Organizational Change Essay What Drives Organizational Change? Gregory Fenwick MGT380 July 25, 2011 Garren Hamby What Drives Organizational Change? Organizations change for many different reasons and situations. Some organizations need change to better themselves, others need change organizational change just to survive and stay in business. Some organizations need to change because of growth, and some change because of downsizing. This paper will look at many different reasons for change and how that change is brought about, including if the change is good or bad for an organization. In business management is faced with competitive environments that sometimes dictate change to keep up with or to surpass competition. The organizations that are able to make effective organizational changes are the ones that survive and prosper while the organizations that do not make the changes necessary to compete often are put out of business by the organizations that can. Even if an organization is able to change their organization, 84% of those organizations will not be successful after the change. This staggering fact raises questions of why management would participate in a major organizational change with such a high failure rate. One idea based upon the economic perspective of organizational change is based upon the â€Å"Management as Control† assumption. This assumption is that â€Å"In competitive economies, firm survival depends on satisfying shareholders. Failure to do this will lead them to either move their capital to other companies or to use their influence to replace senior management with those better aligned with their interests. Therefore, managers conduct change in order to produce better organizational performance in the form of better quarterly results with correspondingly better company share prices. (Managing Organizational Change, Palmer, Dunford, Akin; 2009) Another perspective which is aligned with change management images is the â€Å"Management as Shaping† assumption, which is part of the organizational learning perspective. This perspective assumes that â€Å"Organizations and human systems of all sorts are complex and evolving and therefore cannot be reduced to a singl e, linear objective of maximizing shareholder value. † (Managing Organizational Change, Palmer, Dunford, Akin; 2009) This perspective is based upon the theory that the objectives of this type of change are based upon the need to increase an organization’s adaptive capacity. This includes how an organization might achieve shareholder value. The knowledge needed for achieving these goals is likely to change over time, so it is imperative to build the capacity to both respond to, and shape external changes. This is another reason why management conducts change. One focus for creating change is Environmental Pressure. Environmental Pressure occurs when an organization’s resources decrease because of a reduced demand for products and sales decrease in market share. This includes bad investment decisions. In extreme cases organizational change because of Environmental Pressure is designed to turn around negative cash flow to avoid bankruptcy or â€Å"Organizational Death†. Environmental Pressures include Fashion Pressures or mimetic isomorphism which is when a company imitates another company because of the successful changes that they have made. An example is Boeing Co. imitating General Electric. Mandated Pressure is another environmental pressure that causes organizational change because of a lawsuit or settlement that mandates organizational change. An example of Mandated Pressure is ChevronTexaco after settling a racial discrimination lawsuit changing its organizational structure to include establishment of an external diversity task force charged with monitoring the company’s practices and ensuring fair treatment for minority staff. Sometimes change is forced upon an organization through formally mandated requirements or coercive isomorphism, where organizations are forced to take on activities similar to those of other organizations because of outside demands placed upon them. These mandated pressures can be formal (government mandates), or informal (to get the support of other organizations). Geopolitical Pressures are environmental pressures that have impacts on a range of businesses because they are related to global crises. An example of this is the attacks on September 11, 2001. Many businesses were affected by the crises and because of lack of demand or drops in sales many organizations had to make major changes to survive the downturn caused by the global crises. Market Decline Pressures are environmental pressures that are based on declining markets or products and services. With the decline in the market for certain products and services organizational changes would have to be made to combat the decline. This includes layoffs, and downsizing operations. An example of this is AOL Time Warner when broadband was introduced in the U. S. market AOL Time Warner had to make major organizational changes to keep competitive with the broadband carriers, and eventually became an internet web site only, hosting email and other internet services to remain competitive. Hypercompetition Pressures are environmental pressures that are caused by aggressive companies trying to overtake a market segment, causing organizations to make major changes to stay competitive in the market. An example of this is Dell Computer overtaking Gateway in 1998 for computer sales and causing Gateway to make major organizational changes to keep competitive with Dell. Reputation and Credibility Pressures are another reason for organizational change. When a company’s reputation or credibility come into question, that is usually a time for an organizational change to rebuild the reputation or credibility of the organization. An example of this is Walt Disney Company had a bad reputation of having one of the worst corporate boards in the United States. The Disney Company had all sorts of problems with credibility because of their lax corporate structure until the corporate crises that confronted Enron, Tyco and Worldcom. Because of the scandals that rocked those companies and their shareholders, the Disney Company made major changes to rectify their corporate structure problems to avoid the perception of being tied to one of those companies. At the Company this writer work for, Ameriforge Group, Inc. they have just undertaken an organizational change because of the overwhelming increase in business. This increase has caused major problems in meeting due dates for product to be delivered to the customer. The organizational change consisted of hiring a production coordinator and an assistant production coordinator to work with each department to help move the production of products faster and more efficient ly. The company also restructured some personnel to accommodate the increase in production and hired new personnel with more experience in large production to build a plan to tackle the production problems. So far these changes have helped to increase production an increase delivery times. Organizational change is an important part of the business world. Organizations that can change and adapt to ever-changing situations and markets are the ones that will survive and flourish. Organizations that cannot change and adapt in a short period of time will fall behind their competition and will have a hard time surviving. Change is not easy. It takes time and dedication from everyone in the organization. Communicating change is also very important to the success of the change. There are many reasons for organizational change. Some reasons will work and some will fail, but the companies that are willing to adapt and change for the better will be the ones that will be here for a long time. References Akin, G. , Dunford, R. , Palmer, I. (2006). Managing Organizational Change: A Multiple Perspectives Approach (2nd ed. ). New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies. Kotter, J. P. (1986). Leading Change (). Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Internet Privacy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Internet Privacy - Essay Example Electronic network in privacy is part of a person’s property. The persons in question are subscribed in transactions cognizable to the law to obtain internet access within their scope. Using such property without their permission is intrusive impliedly adds up to trespass. This is because it could expose that person’s (legal or real) information to the public. Use of the next person’s bandwidth of internet access could lead to legal actions. This is because the person pays for the network access. The violation stretches to network providing firms as which bear the financial loss in the equation. Invasion of one’s internet access is proof of the invading party’s capability to sabotage their security. Whether knowingly or unknowingly, such acts are illegal and could be presented for action by law enforcement. The FBI for example takes into account cyber activity tracked to specific persons through intelligence. Workplace or home network access is limited to the people subscribed to them and those allowed by such groups. This allocation process by network firms allows for security by creating circles of privacy. Accessing information from firm’s data as well adds up to

Monday, February 3, 2020

Hurricane Katrina Rescue Efforts Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Hurricane Katrina Rescue Efforts - Term Paper Example On 25th August 2005, the landfall took place in Florida and was estimated to be of category 1. As it was moving towards the tip of Florida winds were observed to lower down but then it again gained the force when it moved ahead to Mexico. Increased force was observed through the movement of Katrina as it was travelling towards west and then North. The conditions of atmosphere and surface of the sea turned the storm into a disastrous hurricane by 26th afternoon. The force of the hurricane continued and attained utmost wind speed on 28TH August and further reached to the category 4 level when reached to south on 29th August regardless of dry air.(Vigdor 136) Hurricane Katrina-The Impacts Hurricane Katrina was one of the strongest storms in United States thus it caused extraordinary terrible destructions all over the states of the Gulf Coast. Loss of Life When the first landfall of Katrina took place its strength was of category 1and 11 deaths were noted at that time. It then extended t o category 5 where actual number of deaths is still unknown but reported 1836 by some reports. While 705 people are reportedly missing since then. (Petterson 645) Floods The blend of tough winds, storm and heavy rains caused crack in the earthen levee leaving New Orleans under 20ft of flood water. Other cities also face about 20-30ft of flood till days after the landfall. (Petterson 648) Economy Oil industry faced a lot of distraction because the oil assembly in Mexico was abridged by 95% per day due to which gasoline prices reached its peak. On the other hand people lost their properties too and it was reported that $81 billion is the cost of property scratches. Thousands of people were left unemployed after the Hurricane.(Petterson 651) Power Loss More than 1.7 million citizens were facing power shortage till several weeks and it was not possible to repair it due to the effects of disastrous hurricane.(Petterson 653) Loss of Infrastructure Katrina Hurricane caused airports to be f looded, bridges were destroyed, small roads were underwater and highways were not in a condition to be crossed. The condition was unbearable and people were badly stuck as there was no way out. (Petterson 655) Hurricane Katrina-Relief Efforts United States’ Government, people of United States and the Governments of other countries jointly participated in the relief efforts of the Hurricane. More than ten thousand volunteers served not only at the time of rescuing people but even after the hurricane when shelters were set up in many states for the effected people. More than 15000 people were houseless and needed shelter and food. (Vigdor 137) At the time of landfall around 34000 people were rescued in New Orleans by the Coast Guard, citizens’ leaded boats and tendered shelter, water and food to the people.(Vigdor 139). Federal Emergency Management was however not well prepared for the disaster but prepared shelters in various states for the refugees later on and made al l possible efforts in order to fulfill their needs. Donations were provided by more than 70 countries across the world in order to provide relief assistance to the effected people. The largest donation of $500 million was made by the government of Qatar while others also contributed whole heartedly. (Vigdor 149). Disaster Medical Assistance Team was formed in Atlanta and Houston.

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Wake up to nutella

Wake up to nutella WAKE UP TO NUTELLA CAMPAIGN of 2007 in UK 1. Context Analysis This communications plan focuses on the Wake Up to nutella promotion campaign of 2007 in the UK. The planning of the campaign by the Ferrero Group UK took around eight months and the promotion campaign had a total duration of approximately one year. (See Appendix 1 for further information about the company profile and its range of products). a. The internal and external context The most important opportunity of Ferrero was its differentiated nutella product that had low competition in the UK market. Main competitors were only Rowse Chocolate and Hazelnut Spread and Traidcraft Fairtrade Chocolate Hazelnut Spread. Furthermore the pricing of nutella created an opportunity for the company, as nutella was cheaper than the competitive products. Traidcraft Fairtrade Chocolate Hazelnut Spread for instance was being sold for  £2.26 for 400g and nutella for only  £1.59 for 400g. A threat for nutella represented the changing eating habits and lifestyle of consumers (social factors). Nowadays, the trend is going towards a healthier lifestyle and healthier eating. Due to the fact that nutella contains chocolate, the product was perceived as indulgence and unhealthy by many consumers. b. The customer context The main target market, which is a specific group Ferrero UK aims the product nutella at, are both female and male schoolchildren at the age group between 5 and 14 years and teenagers and college students, also both female and male. This target group is also described as a group of people who are having for breakfast toast with something on it, such as jam or peanut butter. Another reason targeting young people is that they tend to prefer eating sweet for breakfast. This target group is easier to convince to switch from jam or peanut butter to nutella than people who are not eating toast for breakfast. The target audience, which is a group of people the nutella advertising message is designed at, are parents, but mainly mothers of the target market. The target audience is described as urban and middle to upper middle class families. The mothers of the young children and teenagers are the ones the communication message is aimed at and they are the most influential person in the buying decision. In order to illustrate the importance of the mothers which form the target audience, the Decision Making Unit theory of B2C can be used: Usera target group; schoolchildren at the age between 5 and 14 years, teenagers and college students, males and females. Influencera target audience; mothers who need to be convinced about nutella, who require nutritional information about nutella and who are giving nutella to their children. Influencer can also be opinion leaders such as school teachers, doctors, celebrities, the media etc. Decision makera target audience; the mothers who are deciding what to give to their children for breakfast and therefore they represent the most important target of nutella. Purchaser atarget audience such as mothers who have the financial possibility to buy the product and therefore they are the most important group that needs to be convinced. Additionally, Ferrero UK decided to target mothers who are already giving their children toast for breakfast as these are perceived to be easier to convince to switch to nutella rather than mothers that are not already giving their children toast for breakfast. Due to the fact that sales of nutella in UK are low, compared to other European countries, the target market can be described as new to the product nutella rather than existing customers. Furthermore, the target is neither loyal to the brand nor loyal to a competitor. The target market consists of current users of other spread products for breakfast such as jam, cheese, peanut butter etc. There is actually no comparable competition to nutella ´s hazelnut spread in the UK but there are substitute products on the market, as already mentioned. c. Level of awareness, perception and attitudes towards nutella in UK Despite the worldwide success of nutella, the product suffered from a bad image in the UK, as it can be seen from the diagram above. Most people in the UK, in comparison with the rest of Europe, perceived nutella as a threat and indulgence, especially amongst the mothers. However, in other European countries nutella was perceived as a breakfast ritual and a favourite spread that was also gladly given to children.   The bad consumer perception about nutella was the main reason for the â€Å"Wake up to nutella† campaign. d. Stakeholder context The most important stakeholders of the nutella campaign were: Internal: Staff and management; they needed to be convinced about nutella in order to create a positive word-of-mouth effect to friends and relatives. Furthermore, they were involved in the work of the campaign and therefore they were also responsible for the success of the campaign. The tools of communication with internal stakeholders were face to face meetings, the intranet and newsletters.   Connected: Intermediaries; such as supermarkets that were buying nutella from Ferrero and selling them to the end-user. They needed to be convinced to include nutella into their assortment. The way of communication with intermediaries was direct (face to face), as high involvement decisions between two businesses were involved. External: Media; The media represented an opinion leading function, articles and reports about the campaign and the product itself were published and this has had an high influence on consumer ´s perception about Ferrero/the campaign/nutella. Key ways of communication were a press conference prior campaign launch and regular interviews from the CEO of Ferrero UK about the campaign. Regular interviews assured up-to-date information flow to the customers and increased brand awareness, due to the fact that nutella was mentioned on regular basis in several newspapers and magazines. Customers; most important stakeholders as they are the ones who are buying the product. Ways of communication were the various communication tools that will be mentioned later in this assignment. 2. Communications objectives Research that was undertaken prior the campaign showed that consumers perception about nutella being a treat was based on wrong ingredient information. Many UK customers understood nutella being a chocolate spread and not a hazelnut spread. According to that, the first and most important communication objective of the campaign was to reposition the brand as a hazelnut spread. This implied to better inform the customer about the ingredients. In addition, other communication objectives, using the DAGMAR model as an example (see appendix 2) have been to create brand awareness and brand knowledge but also to increase purchase. To raise awareness and knowledge of nutella was important in order to attract new customers. To increase purchase was crucial in order to gain more new customers and to increase the total revenues of nutella.   Another important communication objective was to change the image of nutella in UK. The main goal was to shift nutella ´s image as unhealthy and a treat towards a positive and healthy hazelnut breakfast spread that is also given to children. Moreover, Ferrero UK aimed to achieve the perception of nutella being an everyday product for children, a good source of energy and a trustworthy product with high quality ingredients. In comparison to communication objectives, marketing objectives are sales-related objectives that are above all measurable, specific, targeted and timed (SMART). (Pickton and Broderick, 2006) Ferrero UK defined its marketing objectives as follows: To increase the volume sales within three years time (up to 40%) To drive nutella ´s household penetration from 7.54% to 10.6% by September 2008 To bring nutella to 765, 000 more households a year To increase market share by 2% Corporate objectives of Ferrero UK were the following: Having its focus on customer relationship which is â€Å"based on knowledge, experience, sensitivity and intuition and a mutual and enduring loyalty† ( Care about social issues, food safety and local communities and its human resources ( To reach market leadership by following the rules of developing innovative products that are fresh and of high quality ( 3. Marketing communications strategy After defining the main target segments and key stakeholders, it was crucial for Ferrero to decide in favour of Push, Pull or Profile strategy. For the â€Å"Wake up to nutella† campaign Ferrero decided in favour of a combination between Push and Pull strategy. The aim of the push strategy was to convince intermediaries to promote and sell nutella in their supermarkets. That means that the communication flows down from Ferrero to the retailer and from the retailer to end user. The push strategy appeared to be reasonable because nutella is a low involvement and impulse buying product and there is currently low brand loyalty towards nutella. The assumption that nutella is a low involvement product comes from the fact that it is a FMCG at a low price ( £1.49). Ferrero also used several communication tools such as advertising and promotion to convince the customer to seek out for nutella and require it from supermarkets (Pull strategy). This strategy was aimed to provide information about the product (e.g. nutella is a hazelnut spread and not chocolate spread) to a wider audience and finally pull nutella from the retailer. For Ferrero it was important to use both strategies because with the push strategy they tried to create a demand and desire for the product (with trade promotions and coupons) and the pull strategy enabled Ferrero to build the nutella brand and inform the people about the product. While the push strategy targeted the supermarkets and was able to boost short-term goals such as impulse purchase, the pull strategy targeted the end user and could focus on long-term results such as building brand awareness and trust. 4. Coordinated promotional mix The â€Å"Wake up to nutella† campaign was aimed to reposition the negative image of nutella in the UK. Ferrero UK decided in favour of using media tools such as Advertising, Sales Promotion, Public Relations and Direct Marketing in order to create synergy. The campaign started with a big TV advertisement with the aim to reach a large audience at relatively low costs. In addition, advertising appeared to be the best tool for raising awareness (see appendix 3). The main communication messages from the TV advertising were: Contains 52 hazelnuts, a glass of skimmed milk and a dash of cocoa (a aim: to inform people about the ingredients and that nutella is a hazelnut cream and not chocolate cream) Good as a part of a balanced breakfast (astrongest message; to use it for breakfast) Not just an occasional treat (aaim: to use nutella as a everyday product) Good source of slow release energy Something I ´d be happy to give my kids (a aim: to show whom nutella is aimed at) Public relations were used to add credibility to the customer about nutella at very low costs but also to reinforce the raising awareness aim (see appendix 3). Public relations consisted of various radio and press adverts. On behalf of nutella nutritionist were writing articles in women magazines about nutella in order to increase the credibility. Additionally, two press adverts were published in women and family magazines across UK to target the target audience (families, especially mother) and the target market (children). Both press adverts had the same message- â€Å"surprisingly Nutella on toast can be good for breakfast†. Sales promotion was used to target the already identified target audience and to support the credibility of the product (See appendix 3). Sales promotion consisted of samplings in Asda, Morrisons, Tesco and Makro stores with the aim to increase trial, represent nutella as a positive brand and boost impulse sales. Various price cuts and Buy one get one free promotionsprior the Back to School period were aimed to increase short-term sales. Direct marketing was aimed to deliver a personal message to the target audience and target market but also provide interaction between Ferrero and its customers. Ferrero created an own website, based on the campaign -This brand website had the goal to inform the target audience about the brand but also to collect individual data by subscribing to receive e-newsletters. The reason for this brand website was also to generate brand awareness (see appendix 3) but also to form brand attitude (Pelsmacker, Geuens, Van den Bergh, 2005). Furthermore, according to Mintel 2009 food manufacturers are increasingly using the medium internet for targeting children. â€Å"Thirty percent of 8-16 year-olds say that they try food or drinks after seeing them online† (Mintel, Children Eating Habits UK, 2009). Ferrero also recognised this opportunity and targeted its main target market with its online campaign. To sum up, it can be said that Ferrero used an Integrated Marketing Communications approach in order to â€Å"provide clarity, consistency and maximum communication impact† (Pelsmacker, Geuens, Van den Bergh, 2005). Furthermore they had one consistent message that was presented by various tools. In addition, it can be said that different tools vary in their effectiveness. Advertising for instance is a good tool for creating awareness but it is not a good tool to increase sales. However, Personal selling can increase sales but it is not recommended for increasing awareness of the product. Ferrero decided in favour of a synergy of different tools in order to meet all of their objectives. 5. Human and Financial Resources The immense â€Å"Wake up to nutella† campaign was the biggest and most expensive campaign Ferrero UK ever experienced. The total costs of the campaign were  £8m whereas the television advertising and the press advert solely accounted for  £4m. These figures appear to be enormous but when comparing the size of the company and the total annual turnover of 170m EUR, marketing expenditures of  £8m appear to be appropriate. Additionally, though the campaign was expensive, it was able to generate a payback of  £1.85 for every  £1 spent. Besides the financial aspect, the human resources are crucial for every successful campaign. Ferrero UK consists of 133 employees working in several departments such as Marketing, Sales, Finance and I.T. Especially for this campaign Marketing Manager Mr. R. Groumdes-Peace required a close collaboration between single departments to exchange ideas and to profit from different know-how. In addition, the company was providing several trainings in order to involve all employees into the campaign. The television campaign and press advertising were created by Krow Communications, a famous London Communication Agency. The reason for choosing an outstanding agency was the lack of marketing expertise for this enormous and challenging campaign. Ferrero UK decided to hire Krow Communications for this campaign, as they were already well-established in the market and had famous clients such as Unilever, Fiat etc. For the Public Relations campaign Ferrero hired various nutritionists that were writing articles on behalf of nutella with the aim to communicate trust and credibility to the consumer. Here again Ferrero relied on the know-how of outstanding experts. The whole work of Ferrero UK consisted of making strategic decisions and finding other agencies that will implement the ideas for the campaign such as to create an interesting and convincing advertising that will fulfil their objectives. Finally, Ferrero UK employed Millward Brown, a research company that undertook the evaluation of the campaign. The whole planning process took around eight months and the campaign had a total duration of one year. 6. Scheduling and Implementation The duration of the â€Å"Wake up to nutella† campaign was one year but it was implemented in three phases (August 2007, December 2007 and December 2008). Ferrero decided in favour of a DRIP approach which means to use the promotional tools to differentiate its product from others, remind customers of the product but more importantly to inform them about the ingredients of the product and finally persuade them to buy nutella. Moreover, expenditure was spread in more than one period, in order to create presence over a longer period of time. 1st phase of repositioning campaign The first phase of the repositioning campaign started on the 27th of August 2007, a few days before the Back to School period and it consisted of one television advertising and two press adverts. In this phase the most important tools were advertising and sales promotion (sampling) due to the objective to increase high awareness amongst schoolchildren and mothers. 2nd phase of repositioning campaign The second phase started in January 2008/February 2008 just before the Pancake Day and consisted of the TV ad and press ads from the 1st phase. The goal with repeating the TV ad and press ads was to remind the customer of nutella as a good occasion to buy for Pancake Day. 3rd phase of repositioning campaign New press adverts and a new improved version of the TV advertisement were launched between September and November 2008. The reason for a new press advert was simply to refresh the whole campaign and the TV advertisement needed to be improved due to a number of complains. The Advertising Standard Authority (ASA) in UK required to change the information from per jar to per portion and to leave the information â€Å"good as part of a balanced breakfast†. Ferrero UK changed the key information from the TV ad into â€Å"A 15g portion contains 2 hazelnuts, skimmed milk and cocoa† and didn ´t mention the balanced breakfast anymore. Furthermore, the push strategy was scheduled prior the pull strategy in order to communicate and convince the supermarkets to include nutella in their assortment. Moreover, Ferrero wanted to convince the supermarkets to support the campaign with sampling promotions in their supermarkets. Because of this reason Ferrero UK firstly concentrated on its push strategy (prior 1st repositioning phase) and then on the pull strategy (1st to 3rd phase). 7. Evaluation and Control Ferrero UK created an immense campaign supported by different promotional tools. During but especially after the â€Å"Wake up to nutella† campaign Ferrero UK has undertaken research to identify if the objectives they have set have been achieved and which of the promotional tools helped the most in achieving these objectives. Millward Brown, one of the world ´s leading research companies was hired by Ferrero to undertake the evaluation of the campaign. According to the findings of Millward Brown, the TV advertisement achieved an Awareness Index of 11 whereas the average index in the UK is 6.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

New Coke Case Study

1.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   When Ted Levitt posed the question, â€Å"What business is it in?† he was blurring the distinction between â€Å"industry† and â€Å"market.†Ã‚   Rather than limiting corporate scope, this question challenges companies to look beyond their immediate material product or service and examine the spectrum of ways they can (and should) target the greater public appeal. Coca-Cola is in the beverage industry and in the market of appealing to nostalgia and personal emotional connections to its international patronage.   Coca-Cola’s â€Å"business† is to offer a sweet, fun, memory-inspiring portable beverage that inspires nostalgia for a carefree time gone by.   Coca-Cola is a sense-memory product that relies on a perception of indulgence and comfort. 2.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   From its beginnings as â€Å"†Pemberton's French Wine Coca,† in 1886, Coca-Cola’s brand building strategy relied heavily on appealing to the national emotion and current conviction of any given time period.   â€Å"†Pemberton's French Wine Coca† was advertised as a â€Å"nerve tonic,† good for alleviating morphine addiction.   When the nation turned to temperance, Pemberton reinvented the brand appeal by advocating Coca-Cola as a non-alcoholic enjoyable substitute.   Likewise, the ingredient cocaine was removed in response to the public sentiment.   In 1904, the name Coca-Cola appeared, in essentially the same script format as is used today.   By generally maintaining visual continuity, Coke achieves a connotation of timelessness. Coke’s meanings all stem from an emphasis on wholesomeness and small town Americana images.   This was best captured during the Great Depression, when Coca-Cola used the slogan â€Å"The Pause that Refreshes† paired with a seemingly carefree Everyman heading to work.   This contradiction in marketing and real life worked for Coke, which did not suffer a devastating economic impact as a result of the depressed country. Coke began its Santa Claus campaign in the 1920s, but it was artist Haddon Sundblom’s now classic 1931 image of a jolly old man in a bright red suit that solidified the connection between Coke and â€Å"The Most Wonderful Time of the Year.†Ã‚   The iconic figure of the generous and loving figure of comfort matched with Coke’s image as a drink for every good American citizen.   Latching onto the cultural and emotional connection of Christians to St. Nick proved critical to Coke’s attempts to forever connect with the rosy yester-year. This strategy is not replicable in today’s marketing environment.   Socially, the target audience(s) is too polarized for a specific iconic image, particularly an over-commercialized figure associated with a specific religion.   Post Cold-War America is less responsive to over-romanticized images, and given the divisive nature of religious images in the secular marketplace, the response Coke garnered in 1931 would not be the same for a new, less acculturated product. 3. Coke’s advertising stresses brand engagement, emphasizing consumer loyalty and a positive personal image that is common to â€Å"Coke drinkers.†Ã‚   The advertising capitalizes on the cultural desires for conformity, connection to a greater social idea, and purchase with a common and â€Å"more desirable† past; these impulses are satisfied by images and well-crafted slogans or jingles. Coke’s visual art/image campaign directly taps into a level of communication that transcends language barriers.   Their choices reflect strategic attempts to align with patriotic, socially commendable images, including well-known and powerful entertainment luminaries who may have commanded additional financial support. When Hollywood influences fashion, language, behavioral or religious trends, it is widely considered the natural order of the beautiful, wealthy elite modeling correct behavior for the lower, coarser classes.   In contrast, marketers are perceived to be embodying the unethical pursuit of money when they more overtly sell the same trends.   In our consumer-driven culture, however, marketers are fulfilling the edicts of capitalism more legitimately than celebrities. 4.   In contrast to Coke, Pepsi cast itself as the youthful drink: fresh, light, and savvier than antiquated Coke.   Slogans targeted a specific young adult market, and advertising featured pop stars and current sports celebrities.   It was a threat to Coke, though it became much more of a threat due to Coke’s reaction. Coke had built its reputation on core stability, and in response to a legitimate competitor, Coke radically violated the very principles that kept it at the top of the beverage market.   Coke could have reemphasized its history, it’s longevity, it’s fidelity to the taste generations of consumers appreciated and expected; consumers had proven over the years that while other products may gain popularity, Coke would remain a solid choice in the market. 5.   Both Keough and Goizueta assumed that change meant positive progress, and that if Pepsi was succeeding at any level, it was because consumers craved something radical.   The advent of calorie counting led to the boom of diet drinks, and Goizueta had already enacted a shift in corporate philosophy by green-lighting Diet Coke.   In the framework of the Coca-Cola advertising history, these assumptions were directly violating all of the brand building work.   New Coke philosophically undermined what the meaning makers intended. 6.    This case reveals that powerful brand meaning is a double-edged sword:   if a product hinges its campaign on comforting emotional continuance, there will be a logical backlash against change, even in the name of positive progress.   This case demonstrates the role of brand loyalty in the negative light; that is, the consumers’ â€Å"passion† (as Keough suggests) can work swiftly against a favored product due to years of brand meaning cultivation. 7.New Coke failed because it directly conflicted with the brand meaning that executives had worked for decades to confirm in the public consciousness. 8.   Keough is correct, but the statement is misleading to some extent.   Research demonstrated that people didn’t reject the taste of New Coke:   people resented a perceived betrayal by what they were encouraged to believe was the most moral and patriotic of beverage-producing companies.   Coca-Cola’s original, consistent and effective marketing succeeded only too well, effectively destroying the New Coke campaign. Emotional attachments may not be quantifiable within traditional statistical methodology, but Coke had significant data to support the effectiveness of their nostalgia connection to inform them of the customer’s product loyalty.   The customers were simply behaving in the way Coke had spent nearly a century urging them to. Bibliography Fournier, Susan. 1999. Introducing New Coke. Harvard Business Review.

Friday, January 10, 2020

St. Augustine’s Confessions

During his time, St. Augustine wrote thirteen autobiographical books entitled â€Å"Confessions†. The book tells how St. Augustine life was changed from living a sinful life to his conversion to Christianity. After studying the Confessions by St. Augustine, several parallelisms can be seen between the said autobiography and the Old and New Testament of the Christian Bible. Parallelisms do not appear only within the text but as well as in structure and format. One of the major parallelisms that can be seen between Augustine’s Confession and the Bible is the pattern or way of developing each stage or part of each one. The Bible started by the creation of everything perceivable by the human senses. On the other hand, Augustine’s Confession started by telling the story of Augustine’s childhood, his birth. Thus, Augustine’s birth symbolizes the creation in the first of book of the Bible, in the book of Genesis. The development of Augustine’s Confessions also followed the same trend as the Bible. The first eight books of the Confessions told the story of Augustine’s life from infancy to living in sin and then, finding his way to God. The story of Augustine’s infancy can be related to the story of Adam and Eve in the Old Testament. As an infant, Augustine knows nothing of sin, innocent as Adam and Eve were in the beginning. Then, Augustine was exposed to the world along with its sinful desires that causes Augustine to live a life afar from God, just as Adam and Eve after eating the fruit of knowledge of good and evil. Augustine continues to live his life following the desires of the flesh until he sees hopelessness without God. This part of Augustine’s life somehow reflects the Old Testament. The Israelites continued to sin causing them to reach the promise land in a lot longer time. The later part of the Confessions can also be linked to the New Testament. Augustine was Christianized that also symbolizes rebirth, rebirth in his attitudes and views of life just as the New Testament signifies the birth of Christ, the one who is to save the people. The dark ages in Augustine’s life can be viewed as the Old Testament wherein the people lived in sin. On the other hand, Augustine’s conversion can be viewed as the New Testament wherein God provided salvation and a new birth. Thus, it can be noticed that the transition of events in the two books are also similar to each other: the conversion of Augustine to Christianity and the incarnation of Jesus Christ. Consequently, it can be said that the first part of the Confessions, like the Old Testament speaks of past events: the birth and early life of Augustine and the creation in the Old Testament. The last parts of the two books are also connected; they both speak of future events. The last part of Augustine’s Confessions stated the eagerness of Augustine to interpret the inner meanings and messages of the Bible. He ended the Confessions by referring to the Sabbath, the seventh day when God rested. Augustine refers to the Sabbath figuratively that can also be interpreted as the final rest of the soul in the presence of God, the eternal life. In the same way, the Revelation or the last book of the New Testament speaks of things to come in a metaphorical sense. Thus, it can be concluded that both the last part of the two books are to be viewed in a metaphorical way in order to understand its true meaning. The Revelation was full of symbolisms in the same way as the last book of the Confessions. Both leaves the readers time to reflect and to search for the true meanings and essence of the text in their own way. Both in the Old and New Testament of the Bible, God reveals himself to man through angels, visions and others because of the inability of man to reach Him. In the same way, Augustine sees God through the life of his mother: through her actions and advice. Both show the inability of man to reach to God in their own way and thus, it was God providing man the means of understanding and obeying Him. Another similarity is that the Bible was comprised of different books (67 books in all) that also include several chapters. In the same way, Augustine wrote several books of which each were named by their order, that is, Book 1 to 13. Each book of The Confessions is also divided in to chapters that are similar to the chapters of the books in the Bible. Thus, it can be said that parallelisms indeed occur between the Holy Bible of Christianity and the Confessions by St. Augustine both within and outside of the text. It can also be said that most Christian literatures of the contemporary time follows the same format as the Confessions in which the original pattern can be rooted to the Bible of Christianity.